Climate Change and Sustainable Energy in Turkey

The project "Climate Change and Sustainable Energy in Turkey" carried out by ENİVA (Energy and Climate Change Foundation) at Kadir Has University was completed and it was published into book.

The project was initiated in a complex period when Kyoto Protocol -the most comprehensive international initiative on climate change- filled its term so it is tried to be replaced with a brand-new international agreement and it intends to display data specific to Turkey. To do this so, firstly the concept of climate change in general and the climate change during the geological ages in particular have been discussed and the past, present and future of climate in Turkey have been evaluated. Today in Turkey, observed climate change with its possible implications in the future and the effects of changes have been examined in light of scientific evidence. Then, historical development of greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change have been deducted within the framework of energy consumption and comments on future trends are welcomed. In the end, finance of energy projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and carbon trade have been taken by hand  in detail.

The project coordinated by Prof. Dr. Volkan Ş. Ediger, who is also the founding chairman of the Foundation, was made book with participation of six authors; 

- In the first part, Prof. Dr. Attilla Çiner and Ass. Dr. Mehmet Akif Sarıkaya, with their study "Glaciers and Climate Change: Past, Present and Future", reveal climate change the earth experiencing throughout the geological history on the basis of glaciers. 

- In the second part, Prof. Dr. Volkan Ş. Ediger, on his study “The Effects of Climate Change in Turkey: Scientific Data" offers available scientific data on the subject about Turkey. 

- In the third part penned by İzzet Arı, "The Historical Development Economy of Energy-Related Emissions", changes in Turkey's primary energy sources between 1990-2010, the sectoral uses of these resources and accordingly, development of greenhouse gas emissions are examined. 

- The part about finance was written by U. Serkan Ata with the title "Finance of Sustainable Energy”. In order for Turkey to meet renewable energy objectives, an important finance need should be overcomed. 

- The last part of the book is devoted exclusively to carbon market. Penned by Dr. Aslı Özcelik, in the study entitled "Carbon Market Model Proposal for Turkey", the questions "What should be included in country-specific carbon market under specific conditions of Turkey?" and "What might be the gains of partners?" are looked for answers. 

According to the project participants, as the global climate change problem is human-induced and global, it facilitates the provision of assistance between countries and it provides cooperation at the international level, while dealing with the future problems requires local solutions mainly. With a perspective of green economy, rather than global climate change, development of sustainability, consumption of natural resources more efficiently and more effective and efficient operation of the system come to the fore. Therefore, each country has to assess the social and economic impacts that will arise within the framework of the concept of climate change in detail. However, evaluating the scientific data specific to Turkey, it is seen that the information -comparatively less than other developed countries- is not used enough in national and international documents. According to available information, in Turkey, where is among the countries most affected by climate change, some positive, but many adverse effects are at stake. At the heart of the negative effects, there is reduction in grain production due to drought and desertification. Therefore, to become more powerful in 21st century, long-term strategies should be developed and implemented on the basis of scientific and technical information. Scientific teams sould participate in the activities carried out on climate change, too, and their work supported by the state within a particular system should be given more space in strategy documents. 

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